قرآن و سنت پر ہے. اختلاف راۓ کی صورت میں قرآن و سنت کی طرف رجوع کرنے کا حکم ہے.بعض اختلافی آرا و ں کو ر حمت اور وسعت قرار دیا گیا ہے- عبدا لو ہا ب شعرانی نے سفیان ثو ری سے نقل کیا ہے کہ وہ کہا کرتے تھے کہ یوں نا کہا کرو کی اس مسلے میں علما نے اختلا ف کیا ہے . اس کی بجاتےیوں کہا کرو کے اس مسلے میں علما نے یہ وسعت و گنجائش پیدا کی ہے .(اجتماعی اجتہاد )
The Holly Koran was revealed upon the Last and Final Holly Prophet(Peace be upon him). The Koran and Sun' nah of the Holly Prophet are basic sources of the Islamic "Shari'ah" or Law . The concept of law is explained in a beautifully subtle parable in the Koran" The similitude of a good word is like a good tree whose root is firm and whose branches reach into heaven(14:24) Two significant words have been used in this verse i.e the root and the branches. Our jurists consider the principles of jurisprudence as the root and the laws as branches(furu). The word usul (principles) literally means roots. It is on the basis of principles and concepts that laws of conduct are made. Jurisprudence, being a science, is applicable not only to Islamic law but to any law in the world for the principles of jurisprudence have universal application.
The commands of God and the orders of the Prophet (peace be upon him)i.e the Koran and the Sunnah, were not compiled overnight. It has taken a long time. The Holly Prophet, his Companions had worked hard, the details of which can be seen in the unparalleled history of Islam. During Umar's caliphete an event of considerable legal significance took place. He appointed a learned Companion, Abd Allah Mas'ud, as a teacher to Kufah. He used to teach in Kufah. It is obvious that his lectures abounded in references to law and jurisprudence. Abd Allah ibn Masud kept teaching law until his death.After Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud his best pupil Alqamah al-Nakha'i was apointed the Head in the principal mosque of Kufah. After his death an other Yemeni, a resident of Kufah and a student of Alqamah called Ibrahim al-Nakha'i succeeded him. Kufah acquired a reputation for excellent teaching in jurisprudence. After the death of Ibrahim al -Nakha'i his pupil Hammad ibn Sulayman, a non-Arab,succeeded him. He too was an expert in law and taught jurisprudence. At his death, yet an other student of his who also was a non-Arab- Abu Hanifah--succeeded him. He was very young at that time but was by far the most brilliant of Hammad's students. He was reluctant to take over but his own class-fellows beseeched him to continue their teacher's task.(The Emergence of Islam-IRI-IIUI)
IN HIS AGE VIEWS REGARDING din AND SHARI'AH AND FIQH: According to Abu Hanifa, if the ascription of K. al-Alim wa'l-Muta.allim to him is correct, distinguished din from shari,ah on the grounds that din was never changed,whereas shari'ah continued to change through history. By din he meant the basic tents of the fath like belief in the unity of God, in the prophets, in the life after death, etc- while by shari'ah he meant the performatory duties. He does not recognize any difference between the din of various prophets, but difference between their shari,ah and forbade them to follow the shari'ah of earlier Prophets.The term din came to be used in a restricted sense, i.e tenets of Islam,in Abu Hanifais time. Hence, the term Usul al Din was used for Kalam in later age
(Abu Hanifah,kitab al-Alim wa'l-Muta'allim-The early Development of Islamic jurisprudence-IRI)
(Abu Hanifah,kitab al-Alim wa'l-Muta'allim-The early Development of Islamic jurisprudence-IRI)
As stated above,the jurists among the Companions were, Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud,one of whose pupils in the fourth generation was Abu Hanifa(d-150 A.H) The other Companion was Abd Allah ibn Umar whose pupil's pupil was Malik, the founder of the Maliki school of jurisprudence. The third Companion was Abd Allah ibn Abbas some of whose legal opinions were adopted by the Khawarij. The fourth Companion was Ali ibn Abi Talib. His jurisprudence has reached us through Zayd ibn Ali and the Ithna Ashari and Fatimi imams. Later follower the pupils of pupils e.g al Shafi,who is the pupil of Muhammad ibn al Hasan, who is the pupil of Abu Hanifa and of Malik. Among the students there was Da'ud al Zahiri's school. In brief, there is no fundamental difference between Muslims of different theological persuasions as far as matters of law are concerned. They have been learning from each other and their legal opinions have a great degree of resemblance.( Main Source- The emergence of Islam-by Muhammad Hameedullah-IRI-IIUI Pakistan)
THE CONCEPT AND MEANING OF TERM FIQH IN PRE-ISLAMIC AGE.
FAQIH AL ARAB.Harith b.Kaladah.
In the pre-Islamic days al-Harith b.Kaladah( b-in the middle of 6th century ca) was Faqih al-Arab. According to, ibn abi Usaybi'ah(d-669 A.H)--in his book Uyun al-Anba'Tabaqat al-Atibba-and Baloogh al Arab by Alausi- he was resident of Ta'if.He visited many countries. He was tabib (Doctor- Chief Physician) .He had the knowledge to operate musical instruments for which he become trained from Yaman and Persia. He was alive in the days of Hadrat Muhammad (peace be upon him),Abu Bakar(573-634), Umar(586-590-644), Uthman ,Ali and Amir Mauwiya(R.A.T.A). He was a author of book(Wikipedia).When he met with Anau Sherwin (Kasra). In a meeting with Kasra-- against a question of Kasra,the Ruler of Persia at that time, he told that he is Bedvi of Arabia and is a doctor there. The Kasra, asked him that” The Arabian, due to their bad habits of ignorance, weak, raw reason and wisdom and imbalanced diet, did not know the importance of a doctor, as such, the presence of a doctor among them is naught. Al-Harith replied-If the Arabians are attributed with these bad habits and deficiencies than they in a very need of a doctor and reformer for good teachings. Hence his presence among them is very important. After some other discussion, the Kasara said his friends” that I had found him solid” The Ruler of the Persia presented him so many valuables and issued order for his History Writer to get saved the dialogues which have been made between the both. الوسی لکھتا ہے -اردو ترجمہ -
انو شیروان نے الحرث سے پوچھا تیرا پیشہ کیا ہے --اس نے کہا --طب--اس نے کہا کیا تو بدوی ہے؟ اس نے کہا : ہاں خالص بدوی اور ان میں سے افضل گھرانے کا ہوں --اس نے کہا -عرب اپنی جہا لت،ضعف، عقل اور بری غذاؤں کی موجودگی میں طبیب کو کیا کریں گے ؟ اس نے جواب دیا --اے بادشاہ --جب عربوں کی یہ صفات ٹھہریں تو انھیں اس شخص کی زیادہ ضرورت ھو گی جو ان کی اصلاح کرے ، انکی کجی کو سیدھا کرے ، ان کیے بدنوں کی ( درستی کی) تدبیر کرے اور ان کیے جنسی میلان کو اعتدال میں رکھے ، اس لیےکہ عقلمند تو بذات خود ان امور سے واقف ھوتا ہے.....
اگلی گفتگو جاری رہی اور اس کیے بعد کسریٰ نے کہا --میں نے اس شخص کو ٹھوس پایا....حق یہ ہے کہ عقلمند شخس وہی ھوتا ہے جسے تجربوں نے پختہ کار بنا دیا هو ...(بلوغ العرب جلد -٤-اردو ترجمہ دکتور پیر محمّد حسن )
Hitti writes,In the art of healing he was succeeded, as was customary, by his son al --Nadr, whose mother was the Prophet's(pbuh) maternal aunt.
According to the statement of Blogh al Arab, al Nadr was killed in the aftermath of Badr battle(1 A.H). He was enemy of Islam.Commenting upon the events of this War the Quran said" O, Prophet' Exhort the believers to fight. If there be of you twenty steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a hundred steadfast they shall overcome a thousands of those who disbelieve,because they( the disbelievers) are a folk without intelligence.
Here the Qur'an said( قوم لا يفقهون (8:65
The term Fiqh
The original meaning of fiqh is the understanding and knoledge of some thing. In this sense,fiqh and fahm re synonyms. An Arabic idiom goes: فلان لا يفقه و لا ينقه (' So-and-so neither understands nor comprehends"). The word fiqh was originally use by the Arabs for a camel expert in covering; he who distingishe the she-camels that are lusting from those that are pregnent. Accordingly, the expresion فحل فقيه was current among them.( Lisan al arab by ibn Manzoor) From this expression, it is believed, the meaning of deep knowledge and understanding of anything has been derived. Hence, Fiqh al-Lughah (understnding of the science of language) is the title of a work produced by al-Tha,alibi (d-429 A.H). This work has nothing to do with law, instead; it deals with the rules and regulations the mastery of which enables a person to acquire command over the Arabic Language. As we have already discussed that, in pre-Islamic days the term Fiqh al'Arab was an appellation given to al-Harith b Kaladh was also called Tabib al-Arab, this latter expression being synonymous with the former term.(Arabic -English Lexicon -The early development of Islamic
Jurisprudence-by Ahmad Hasan-IRI-IIUI Islamabad)
In the early period we find a number of terms like fiqh, ilm,iman, tawhid, tadhkir and hikmat that were used in broad sense, but later their original meanings changed and became more narrow and specific.In more than one place the Quran has used the word fiqh in its general sense of "understanding". The Qur'anic expression -ليتفقهوا في الدين " that they may gain understanding in religion" shows that in the Prophet's time the term fiqh was not applied in the legal sense alone but carried a wider meaning covering all aspects of Islam--namely- theological, political, economic and legal.
The Companions of the Holly Prophet who gave legal judgement and were noted for exercising intelligence in their decisions were known as fuqaha. Alongside of the term fiqh, the term shara'i( in the plural) was also current among the early Muslims. Reports indicate that the newly converted Muslims who had come to depute someone to their locality to instruct them in the "shara'i" of Islam. As for the term shari'ah , it was hardly used in the early days of Islam. It was introduced to carry the specific meaning i.e the Law of Islam, at a later date. Literally, the word shari,ah means a "course to the watering place" and a "resort of drinkers". The Koran uses the words shir'ah and shari'ah in the meaning of din(religion), in the sense that it is the way ordained by God for man (Qur,an 5:51; 45:17). The term shara'i(pl.of shari'ah) was used in the Prophet's time for the essentials of Islam. The bedouins who requested the Prophet to depute someone to their tribe to teach them the shara'i of Islam,obviously meant the essentials of religion. They wanted to be acquainted with the fundamentals and obligatory duties of Islam. This presumption is supported by the tradition which states that the Prophet,when once asked about the shara'i of Islam, mentioned prayer,zakah, fasting of Ramadn and Hajj pilgrimage. It shows that the term shara'i meant fara'id(obligatory duties) It is also to be noted that Kalam and Fiqh were not separated till the time of al-Mamun(d218 A.H. It appears that fiqh embraced the theological problems as well as the legal issue till the second century of the Hijra, as it is concluded from a book attributed to Abu Hanif(d 150 A.H),against the beliefs of Ahl al Qadar deals with the basic tenets of Islam like faith, unity of God, His attributes, the life hereafter, Prophet-hood etc.-Source-as above-
As we have discussed above that . The term din came to be used in a restricted sense, i.e tenets of Islam,in Abu Hanifais time. Hence, the term Usul al Din was used for Kalam in later age. Al shafi'i uses the term shari'ah in the sense of institution. Today the term shari,ah covers all aspects of Islam. It combines Fiqh and Kalam both.(source- a.a)
Although they had different opinions among the jurists,the Islamic scholars/Fuqha had worked to find the exact will of the Lawgiver for the Islah and Falah (guidence and welfare) of the mankind.They left for us a great quantity of Islamic literature on Islamic Jurisprudence for guidance and precedents. These different opinions had given a open field for research. Now the scholars of this modern age are taking the advantage of this. It is imperative for the Researcher to know about the different opinions among all the Islamic schools of jurisprudence without any prejudice to reach up to the real and correct conclusion, following the Objective of the Shari'ah". All these have ONE and the same SOURCE Islamic SHARI'AH.
The Federal Shariat Court Islamabad is not restricted to follow a specific school of jurisprudence. The Honorable court has included in his list of Advisers to assist the court, relating to all school of Islamic prudence. The path and practice of the Council of Islamic Ideology Pakistan, is also approximately the same.
وفاقی شرعی عدالت کسی خاص مسلک کی پابند نہیں ہے،لیکن اپنے فیصلوں میں عدالت نے ہر مسلک کی رائے اور دلائل کو اہمیت دی ہے .اصول فقہ سے بھی استفادہ کیا جاتا ہے . عدالت نے اپنے متعدد فیصلوں میں اس بات کی تصریح کی ہے کہ قانون کیے لیے بنیادی ذریعے قرآن اور سنت ہیں . اگر کسی مسلے کے بارے میں قرآن کریم کا حکم موجود هو اور اپنے معنی میں با لکل واضح اور صریح هو تو اس پر عمل کیا جاتے گا اور اسے قانونی شکل دی جاتے گی . اگر قرآن کریم کا کوئی حکم واضح اور صریح نا هو ،احادیث مبارکہ میں اس وضاحت کی گی هو تو حدیث میں ذکر کردہ وضاحت کی روشنی مے قرآن کریم کی تصریح کی جاتے گی -(محمد مطيع الرحمن --اجتماعي اجتهاد-)
سعودي عرب كي عد التين قرآن و سنت كي بعد فقہ حنبلی سے استفادہ حاصل کرتی ہیں - مذہب حنبلی پر عمل درآمد کیے دوران مے اگر کسی معاملہ میں قاضی محسوس کرے کی اس میں حنبلی مذہب کیے مطابق عمل کرنے میں زیادہ دشواری پی جاتی ہے یا وہ مصلحت عا مہ کے مطابق نہیں ہے،تو وہ یے دیکھے گا کہ اس مسلے مین دوسرے مذاہب کا کیا حکم ہے . پھر جس مذھب کا حکم بھی مصلحت کیے قریب هو گا اس کیے مطابق فیصلہ کیا جاتے گا .(سعودی عرب کی عدالتی نظام ).
امام احمد کے مسلک کیے مطابق مسائل کا حکم معلوم کرنے کی لیے عدالتیں مندرجہ ذیل کتابوں سے راجوع کریں گی.
(١ ) شرح المنتہی (٢)شرح الاقتناع...اور جو مسلہ ان دونوں کتابوں میں یکساں طور پر ذکر ھوا هو ،یا صرف ایک کتاب میں موجود هو فیصلہ اس کی مطابق کیا جاتے گا -اور جس دونوں کتابوں میں دو دو الگ الگ حکم موجود ہوں ، تو پھر ایسی صورت میں " شرح المنتہی " میں بیان کردہ حکم اختیار کیا جاۓ گا .
Now the scholars of Islam re- coursing to the wider sense of Islamic Shari,ah. A contemporary author defines Shari'ah and distinguishes it from Fiqh in the following words.
"Shari,at" is the wider circle, it embraces in its orbit all human actions, fiqh is the narrow one, and deals with what are commonly understood as legal acts. Shari'at reminds us always of revelation, that 'ilm(knowledge) which we could never have possessed but for the Koran or Hadith; in fiqh, the power of reasoning is stressed, and deductions based upon 'ilm are continuously cited with approval. The path of Shari,at is laid down by God and His Prophet; the edifice of fiqh is erected by human endeavor. In the fiqh, an action is either legal or illegal, yasjuzu wa ma la yajuzu, permissible. In the Shari'at there are various grades of approval or disapproval. Fiqh is the term used for the law as a science; and Shari,at, for the law as the divinely ordained path of rectitude.(Fayzee, Asaf A.A Outlines of Muhammadan Law, London-&-Ahmed Hasan).
In above-mentoned para the writer tells us that the Fiqh is a branch of Islamic Shari'ah or Law ,it may be dealt with,keeping in view his proper status and limitations in the Islamic Shari'ah.
ALLAH SAYS:"But,nay, by the Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make thee judge of what in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of that which thou decidest, and submit with full submission.(Al-Koran 4:65)