Sunday, 9 September 2012

JUST EDUCATION




The cheaters have become so numerous                      (Pattern taken from History of the   

Fake degrees, false Leaders, but stage is glorious.         Arabs.)

The exploiter of knowledge leads the innocent astray,

Sellers have selfishly imposed sanctions various.

The wealth is consideration for the pen now,
Poor is waiting for Allah Gracious.

The power crushes the needy with fey money,
But, defeated have fetched revolutions famous.

Why the helpless are left so behind?
 Question about,the children serious.



This cause has paralyzed the whole body,
Which has exchanged the font with wine fictitious.



Who slips,time snatches his space,
Leaving message,recourse,be judicious.



"Read in the name of Allah"for mankind,
The Subjects tarry for you O,pious and genius.



O' my Lord lead me to a place.
Where I see,like Shafi's Masters.



TALIB HUSSAIN




Saturday, 8 September 2012

Alfalah Consulting: Pakistan: SBP to develop rules for Islamic bankers...

Alfalah Consulting: Pakistan: SBP to develop rules for Islamic bankers...: DUBAI: State Bank of Pakistan has announced it will develop rules defining the roles and responsibilities of all those involved in the Shar...

    یہاں لکھیں

    Saturday, 11 August 2012

    جمہور علماۓاسلام اور علماۓ الازہر کے نزدیک تعبیرات "الربا" سود

    پچھلے دنوں "مولانا مودودی " کی بابت فیس بک کے صداۓ مسلم فورم پر ایک گفتگو ہوئی جس میں مولانا کے متعلق بات ہوتی رہی اور فیس بک کے دوستوں نے اس بات چیت میں حصہ لیا اور اپنے اپنے خیالات کا اظہار کیا ، اس گگتگو میں شامل اسلامی معیشت کا موضوع بھی تھا ، اسی گفتگو سے ہم نےمندرجہ ذیل مباحث لیے ہیں اور معمولی حک و اضافہ سے قارئیں کی خدمت میں پیش کر رہے ہیں تاکہ اگر کوئی صاحب چاہے تو استفادہ کر سکتا ہے.

    علمائے اسلام میں سے جمہور کی راۓ یہ ہے  کہ قرض پر جو بھی اضافی  متعین رقم  لی اور دی جاۓ وہ "ربا" سود ہے اور اس کے لئے نصوص قرآن و سنت میں سخت وعید ہے . "الربا" یعنی سود مکمل طور پر حرام ہے اس حد تک تو تمام امت مسلمہ کا اتفاق ہے لیکن "الربا" کے مفہوم میں جمہور اور علماۓ الازہر وغیرہ کے درمیان اختلافات پائے جاتے ہیں."الربا" کی  تعبیر و تشریح کےعلاوہ  الازہر کے کئی اور فتویٰ پر بھی اسلامی دنیا کے تحفظات پاۓ جاتے ہیں،نیزان کی تائید و مخالفت میں متعدد مقالات اور علمی تحریریں سامنے آئ ہیں اور یہ سلسلہ جاری ہے     

    بنکوں میں جمع شدہ رقوم پر ملنے والا نفع.

     ازہری علماء بنکوں میں رقوم رکھنے پر بنک کی طرف سے ملنے والی رقم یا منافع کو حلال جانتے ہیں. اس سلسلے میں سب سے پہلا فتویٰ امام محمّد عبدہ (م ١٩٠٥) نے دیا اور سورہ البقرہ کی آیات ٢٧٥ تا ٢٨١ کی تفسیر میں اس ربا کو بیان کرنے کے بعد جسے حرام کرنے کے لیے یہ آیات نازل ہوئی تھیں کہا" اس میں وہ شخص دا خل نہیں ہے جو اپنے مال کو کسی دوسرے شخص کو کسی کام میں لگانے کے لئے دے اور وہ شخص اپنی کمائی سے کچھ متعین حصہ اس پہلے شخص کو دے، چاہے یہ نفع تھوڑا ہو یا بہت ..اس کے متعیں ہونے سے قواید فقہاء کی تو مخالفت ہے، کیونکہ وہ کسی بھی سطح پر متعین نفع کو جائز قرار نہیں دیتے، لیکن یہ وہ واضح مرکب سود نہیں ہے، جو معا شرے کی تباہی کا با عث ہو اور جس کی حرمت کے لیے یہ آیت نازل ہوئیں
     اس کے بعد انہوں نے علت بیان کرتے ہوے کہا -یہ معامله صاحب مال اور عامل (کارندہ) دونوں کے لیے نفع بخش ہے. اس کے برعکس سود بلا سبب ایک فریق کو نقصان پہنچاتا ہے اور دوسرے فریق کو بغیر اس کی کسی محنت و مشقت کے منفعت پہنچا تا ہے، اسی لیے یہ ممکن ہی نہیں کہ اللہ تعالیٰ کے عدل و انصاف میں ان دونوں معاملوں کا حکم ایک ہی ہو .کسی بھی عقل مند اور عادل انسان کے نزدیک نفع بخش چیز کو نقصان دہ چیز پر قیاس نہیں کیا جا سکتا ،اور نہ ان کا حکم ہی ایک جیسا ہو سکتا ہے.


     انہی دلائل کو سامنے رکھتے ہونے بعد میں آنے والے شیخ الاز ہر الشیخ محمود شلتوت نے آپس کے تعاون کی بنیاد پر قائم ہونے والی کمپنیوں کی طرف سے دیئے جانے والے طے شدہ منا فع کو جائز قرار دیا . اس طرح سیونگ بنک کے نفع کو بھی انہوں نے جائز قرار دیا . وہ کہتے ہیں. یہ معاملہ اپنی کیفیت ،تمام حا لا ت کے اعتبار اور نفع کی ضمانت کی وجہ سے اس شراکت سے مختلف ہے جس کی تفصیلات ہما رے اولین فقہاء نے بیان کیں .اس کی اقسام واضح کیں اور شرائط مقرر کیں.--فتویٰ کے آخر میں لکھتے ہیں -- اب یہ بات واضح ہو گئی ہے کہ یہ نفع سود نہیں ہے کے اسے حرام قرار دیا جاۓ. یہ ایک دوسرے کو سہولت پہنچا نے اور باہمی تعاون کی حوصلہ افزائی کی ایک شکل ہے،اور یہ وہ اقدار ہیں، جن کی شر یعت بھی حوصلہ افزائی کرتی ہے.



     بنکوں کے نفع کے بارے میں اسی قسم کے خیالات کا اظہار موجودہ شیخ ا الا اظہر اور سابق مفتی مصر ڈاکٹر Tantavi نے بھی کیا ہے. دیکھیے انکی کتاب معاملات النبوک و ا حکامھا الشرعیة.-- ا لا ازہر سے ہٹ کر ، اگر ہم دیگر علمائے کرام کی طرف رجوع کریں تو وہ بنکوں میں رکھی گئی رقوم پر ملنے والے نفع کو حرام قرار دیتے ہیں . جس میں مولانا مودودی، گوہر رحمٰن،مولانا مجیب اللہ ندوی، اسلامک فقہ اکادمی انڈیا ، وغیرہ وغیرہ .

    انشورنس 
     اسی طرح ازہری علماء میں الشیخ عبدا للہ سیام نے ١٩٣٣ میں انشرونس کے جواز کا فتویٰ دیا. انکے بعد الشیخ احمد طہ السنوسی نے اسے جائز قرار دیا. اور آخر میں مشہور ازہری عا لم الشیخ عبدا لو ہا ب خلاف نے ١٩٥٣ میں اپنے فتویٰ میں لکھا.

    زندگی کی انشور نس کرانا بالکل صحیح ہے اور یہ کمپنی ،اس میں شریک افراد اور سو سا یئٹی society سب ہی کے لیے مفید ہے اور اس میں کسی کے لیے کوئی نقصان نہیں- اس میں کسی ایک کا مال کوئی دوسرا نا حق نہیں کھا تا، بلکہ یہ تو مشترکہ مفاد کے لیے آپس کا تعا ون ہے. شر یعت تو نقصان دہ چیز کو حرام کرتی ہے، یا جس کا نقصان نفع سے زیادہ ہو.
    جامعہ ا لا ازہر کے ادارے مجمع الجوث ا لا سلا میہ نے ١٩٦٥ میں اپنی دوسری سا لانہ کانفرنس منعقدہ قاہرہ میں حکومت کی طرف سے جاری کردہ پنشن کے نظام،بعض دوسرے مما لک میں جاری سو شل سیکورٹی اور سو شل انشو رنس کے نظام کو جائز قرار دیا ، تاہم انشو ر نس کے کارو بار کی وہ صورتیں جن میں تجارتی کمپنیاں کام کرتی ہیں، اس بارے میں مزید تحقیق کرنے کو کہا. -- اب تک مجمع الجوث الاسلامیہ کے ارکان انشورنس کی تائید اور مخالفت میں دو حصوں میں منقسم ہیں اور کوئی واضح فیصلہ منظر عام پر نہیں آ سکا، البتہ مویدین میں سے ڈاکٹر محمّد البہی کی کتاب التامیں فی ھدی احکام ا لا سلام و ضرورات المجمع المعاصر منظر عام پر آ چکی ہے . انشورنس کے کا رو بار کے بارے میں ازہر کے علاوہ دیگر علماے کرام کی آرا بالکل مختلف ہے.-----------------------------------------------------مولانا مودودی لکھتے ہیں- انشورنس کے بارے میں شرع اسلامی کی رو سے تین اصولی اعتراضات ہیں جن کی بنیاد پر اسے جائز نہیں ٹھہرایا جا سکتا.
     سعودی ہیتہ کبارالعلماء نے ١٣٩٧ مطابق ١٩٧٧ میں ریاض میں اپنے اجلاس میں انشورنس کے بارے میں غور کیا. تفصیلی گفتگو اور اس مو ضوع پر دستیاب مواد کو دیکھنے کے بعد کونسل اس نتیجے پر پہنچی کہ تجارتی بیمہ اپنی موجودہ شکل میں حرام ہے. کونسل نے یہ رائے بھی دی کی تعا ونی بیمہ جائز ہے اور وہ تجارتی بیمے کا بدل ہو سکتا ہے --- اسی طرح رابطہ عالم اسلامی نے بھی ایک کمیٹی ١٩٧٨ میں تشکیل دی جس کے ارکان الشیخ عبدل عزیز بن باز، الشیخ محمود الصواف اور الشیخ عبداللہ السبیل تھے. اس کمیٹی نے بھی تجارتی بیمے کے عدم جواز اور تعا ونی بیمے کے جائز ہونے کا فیصلہ دیا.--- اسلامی نظریاتی کونسل پاکستان کی رائے کے مطابق بھی معاہدہ بیمہ ان اسباب کی بنا پر فاسد ،نا جائز اور ممنوع ہے.* اس میں غرر فا حش پا یا جاتا ہے * اس میں قمار کا عنصر بدرجہ اتم موجود ہے * اس میں سود کا عنصر پایا جاتا ہے.(اجتماعی اجتہاد  تصور،ارتقاء اور عملی صورتیں  - IRI Islamabad ---page-333 وغیرہ سے استفادہ کیا گیا )

      گفتگو میں شامل ایک دوست کا کہنا ہے کہ،یہاں دیکھنے وا لی ضروری بات یہ ہے کہ کیا علما ے الا ازہر دوسروں سے کم علم والے ہیں یا انکی اپروچ نصوص سے استنباط احکام میں درست نہیں؟ یہ علماء بہت زیادہ علم و عمل والے ہیں اور جو نکات انہوں نے پیش کیے ہیں ان میں اسلامی معیشت کی سوجھ بوجھ اور انسانوں کے مصا لح کا خاص خیال نظر آتا ہے . اس لیے اسلامک سکالرز کو چاہے کہ ان آراؤں کو تحقیقی پیمانوں پر پرکھیں ، کیوں کہ اسلامی معاشیات کی راہ میں بہت زیادہ رکاوٹیں اور مسا ئل ہیں ،اور اسلامی بنکوں کا اگرچہ قیام عمل میں لایا جا چکا ہے ،لیکن انکا زیادہ کام "شرعی حیلوں " کے بل بوتے پر چل رہا ہے. انکو اسلامی قوانین کے تحت لانا ہو گا ،تاکہ لوگ اس نظام سے متنفرنہ ہو جائیں. پاکستان میں "زرعی ترقیاتی بنک"ADBP/ZTBL نے پچھلی صدی کے نویں عشرے میں اسلامی بنکاری کا نظام شروع کیا تھا مگر ناکام ہو کر دوبارہ "پرانے Interest based سودی نظام پر  آ گیا ہے  .(محمد عثمان )

    Mohammad Fayaz کا کہنا ہے کہ " فقہ پر ہمیشہ سے اسلامی اسکالرز کی رائے مخلتف رہتی ہیں جدیدیت کے چیلنجوں میں سے ایک یہ بھی ہے کہ اس شعبہ میں کافی کام ہو چکا ہے اور آج دنیا میں اس موضوع پر مسلم اور غیر مسلم ماہریں کام کر رہے ہیں ہم چونکہ ماہر فقہ اور ماہر معشایات نہٰں اس لیے ہم اس پر ان علما اور اسکالرز کی رایے کو مانتے ہیں جو اس موضوع پر دسترس رکھتے ہیں،جہاں تک جامعہ الازہر کا تعلق ہے پچھلی چند دہایوں سے اس جامعہ پر حکومتی مداخلت نے اس کی تحقیقی ساکھ کو متاثر کیا ہے اسلیے آمرانہ دور میں اس جامعہ کے اسکالرز نے آزادنہ رائے بہت کم دی ہے وہی موقف اپنایا جو اس قوت کے آمر کا حکم ہوا کرتا تھا"


     ما ثر الامرا، آمرانہ تسلط اگرچہ انسانو ں کی سوچ اور کارکردگی پر گہرے ا ڈالتا ہے، لیکن یہ بات مد نظر رکھنی بہت ضروری ہے کہ بات کرنے والا کیا بات کر رہا ہے اور کیا کر رہا اور اس کا مآخذ شر یعت میں کیا ہے، اگر صدر اسلام ہی کو لیں تو پتا چلتا ہے کہ، امام ابو حنیفہ ، امام مالک اور امام حنبل پر ظلم ڈا ہا ئے  گنے اور حضرت امام شا فعی (رح) کے سر پر چابیوں کا گچھا مارا گیا جس سے انکی بلاآخر موت واقع ہوئی. یہ حقیقت ہے کہ  الازہر کی فقہی آراؤں پر عا لم اسلام کے تحفظات ہیں اور ان پر بحث بھی ہوتی ہے ، لیکن دوسرے طرف یہ فیصلے نظائر Precedents کی حیثیت رکھتے ہیں.
    Talib Hussain--- زرعی بنک کے متعلقہ ہمارے مضمون Islamic banking in Pakistan some aspects میں اقتباس دیکھ سکتے ہیں http://talibhaq.blogspot.com/ ---علماے  الا زہر کی آراؤں پر مباحث The supreme Court's judgement on Riba. IIUI Shariah Academy میں دیکھے جا سکتے ہیں.

    Abdullah Ahamad کا کہنا ہے کہ" ماشاٗاللہ۔۔۔۔۔۔ بہت معلوماتی اور علمی بحث ہوئی ۔ہمیں مذکورہ بحث سے فائدہ ہوا۔"
    Usman Haider نے مزید اس میں اضافہ کیا کہ " ایک اقتباس.ڈاکٹر سید طنطا و ی ( سابق مفتی مصر) صاحب نے اپنی کتاب پر اٹھنے والے اعتراضات کے جواب میں ایک انٹرویو میں کہا. " یہ کہنا کہ مفتی مصر سود کی حلا ل سمجھتا ہے، بالکل غلط ہے. ایسی بات تو کوئی بھی صاحب دین و عقل کہہ نہیں سکتا. بلکہ میں تو یہ کہتا ہوں کہ جو شخص سودی لیں دین کو جائز کرے،وہ مرتد اور اسلام سے خارج ہے، کیونکہ اس نے اس چیز کو حلال کیا جو واضح طور پر حرام ہے. اب رہی یہ بات کہ میں نے بنکوں کے معاملات جیسے سیو نگ سر ٹیفکیٹ اور اس سے ملتے جلتے معاملات کو جائز قرار دیا ہے تو یہ الگ بات ہے، اور درست ہے. میں نے یہ یو نہی نہیں کہ دیا. بلکہ بڑے گہرے علمی مطا لعے ، بنکوں کے بارے میں اقتصادی اور شرعی ماہرین سے باہمی مشاورت کے بعد میں نے اسے جائز قرار دیا ہے جس کی تفصیل میری کتاب میں موجود ہے. ایسا کہنے میں اکیلا نہیں ہوں کہ سیو نگ سرٹیفکیٹ اور ایسے دیگر معاملات اور ان کا نفع حلال ہے، بلکہ مجھ سے پہلے جلیل ا القدر علماء کی بھی یہی را ئے ہے. جیسے عبدل الجلیل عیسی، یاسین سویلم ، عبدا للہ المشد ، محمد سلام مدکور، زکریا البری اور عبدل العظیم برکہ وغیرہ کتاب - الحلال و ا لحرام فی معاملات النبوک ، مصر :مارچ ١٩٩٢،س، ٤٢ ، بذریعہ تاج الدین ازہری .


     اسلامی معیشت کے حوالے سے مندرجہ ذیل جہتیں سید مودودی کے کام میں دیکھی جاتی ہیں .١.اسلامی فلسفہ معشیت کی نوعیت و ما ہیت یا اس کے فلسفیانہ پہلو پر مباحث. 
    2.اسلام کی معاشی تعلیمات کی تشریح اور انہیں ایک منضبط شکل دینے کی کوشش -٣- مروجہ معاشی نظام کی اسلامی معاشی نظام میں تبدیلی کے فکری مباحث. 
    ٤. اسلام کا دیگر نظام ہاے میشت سے موازنہ 
    ٥. اپنے عہد کے معاشی مسا ئل کا تجزیہ ( دیکھیں- کتاب سود-via-پروفیسر ڈاکٹر فاروق عزیز.)


     جہاں تک علماءے ا الازہر کی آراؤںکا تعلق ہے تو اس کے بارے میں FSC, SC کورٹس میں یہ معاملہ زیر بحث آ چکا ہے. اور کتاب کا حوالہ بھی احقر دے چکا ہوں. اس ضمن میں عرض کروں گا اور اس میں مزید اضا فہ کروں گا کہ سود/منافع جزوی طور پر نا تو ماہرین معا شیا ت کے نزدیک فائدہ مند هو سکتا ہے اور نا ہی ماہرین شریعت کے نزدیک.کیونکہ اگر صرف یہ کہا جاے کہ سیونگ بنک اکاونٹ اور اس طرح کے معاملات میں معین منا فع درست ہے باقی میں نہیں تو اس سے بنکنگ کی "مشارکہ" وغیرہ کی سکیم مکمل نہیں ہوتی جب تک اسے آگے کسی فائدہ مند کام میں نہ لگایا جا ے تو ظاہر ہے جب مخلوط سسٹم هو گا تو بنک یا ادارے کو اورکوئی مںافع بخش مارکیٹ دیکھنا هو گی یہ سودی بھی هو سکی اور غیر سودی بھی. مسلم معاشرے میں اس طرح مشکلات پیدا هو سکتی ہیں. ا ور معاشی میدان میں اس سے وقتی فائدہ تو هو سکتا ہےلیکن مستقل بنیادوں پر کچھ کہا نہیں جاسکتا. دوسری طرف ایسے اکاونٹس اگر سودی بنک میں کھولے جاتے ہیں تو اس کا مطلب یہ هو گا کہ سودی نظام کو تقویت پہنچائی گئی ہے. اگر ایک قرضہ،ڈیپازٹ ،معاملہ پر بڑھوتری جا ئز ہے تو دوسرے میں عدم جواز کیوں؟اس طرح اس ضمن میں ماہرین معشیت اور ماہرین شریعت کو غور کرنا چاہیے .


     جب متعین منفع طے ہو جاتا ہے تو اس پر کوئی بھی اسلامک طریقہ تمویل لاگو نہیں ہو سکتا . ڈیپازٹ دہندہ fixed profit لینے کا حق دار رہ جاتا ہے، ڈیپازٹ گیر یندہ  نفع دینے کا، چا ہے اسے نقصان ہی کیوں نا ہو،اس طرح غرر فحش پایا جاتا ہے. ڈیپازٹ گیریندہ اسے اگر غلط استعمال کرے تو اس کے مفاسد فائدہ سے بڑھ جاتے ہیں اور یہ قرآنی اصول کے خلاف ہے ، جو شراب اور جوئے والی آیت سے اخذ کیا جاتا ہے. یہ اس قرآنی اصول کے بھی خلاف ہے"کہ دولت چند ہاتھوں میں ہی نہ گردش کرتی رہے" اس طرح کے ڈیپازٹ سے دولت کے ثمرات عام آدمی تک نہیں پہنچ پاتے، جس طرح آج کل ہو رہا ہے . قمار اور سود کی وعید کو گڈ مد نہیں کیا جا سکتا --یہ بھی امر قابل غور ہے . پاکستان میں سب سے پہلے بنکوں اور معیشت کو اسلامیا نے پر رپورٹ  ١٩٧٩ میں پاکستان نظریاتی کونسل نے تیار کی اور پھر ١٩٨٠ میں بھی ،سودی بنکوں میں نفع اور نقصان کی بنیادوں پر اکاونٹ کھولنے شروع ہوئے جو اپنی تمام ترنوعیت کے ا عتبار سے بالکل غیر اسلامی تھے. زرعی بنک کو اسلامک بنکنگ سسٹم میں لیا گیا -اور پھر اس نظام کی ناکامی کے بعد دوبارہ سودی نظام کی طرف لایا گیا - احقر کی تحریر سے یہ نتیجہ اخذ نہ کا جا ئے کہ  اسلامی نظام معشیت کی حوصلہ شکنی کی جا ر ہی ہے یا غیر ضروری بحث کی جا رہی ہے . ان میں سے کوئی بات نہیں . فیڈرل شریعت کورٹ نے حرمت سود پر فیصلہ دیا اور سپریم کورٹ پاکستان نے بھی ، لیکن سپریم کورٹ نے پھر شریعت کورٹ کو ٢٠٠٢ میں واپس کر دیا تاکہ اس پر دوبارہ غور کا جاے، جو فیصلہ بڑے جوش سے دیا گیا اب تک pending ہے ،

    ا لازہر کی آراؤں کا مثبت پہلو بھی دیکھا جا سکتا ہے اگر کوئی ہے، اس سے کوئی حتمی نتیجہ بھی اخذ کیا جاسکتاہے . اب پچھلے دنوں کے منعقدہ سیمارز جو اسلامی نظریاتی کونسل کے زیر اہتمام کروائے گئے ، ان سے بازگشت آ رہی ہے کہ "ربا "کی تعریف از سر نو کی جائے اس کے لیے طلوع اسلام سے پہلے رواجوں اور لغات، اور تعامل کا بہ غور مطالعہ کیا جائے تاکہ نصوص کی تعبیر و تشریح اقرب الحق کی جا سکے. اس سے یہی نتیجہ اخذ ہوتا ہے کہ جو کچھ پہلے کیا گیا ہے اس کو حرف آخر نہیں سمجھا گیا اور یہ مسلہء مزید غو ر و فکر کا متقاضی گردانا گیا ہے. ظاہر ہے کہ اس ضمن میں انسانوں کے مصالح وابستہ ہیں کوئی بھی لغزش انتہائی خطرناک ثابت ہو سکتی ہے. لیکن حضرت مودودی کے حوالے سے جب ہم دیکھتے ہیں تو یہ بات سامنے آتی ہے کہ ٢٠٠٢ سے پہلے جو بھی اسلامی نظریاتی کونسل، وفاقی شرعی عدالت ، ا ور علماے اسلام کی غالب اکثریت نےکہا وہ اس سود /اسلامی نظام معشیت کے بارے میں سید مودودی کی تعیلما ت سے"ہم آہنگ"ہے ، یہ علیٰحدہ بات ہے کہ اس کا نتیجہ کیا نکلتا ہے .

     مولانا بنیادی طور پر راسخ العقیدہ Orthodox قسم کے مفکر ہیں لہذا وہ دیگر معاملات کی طرح معاشی معاملات میں بھی اپنے آپ کو حتی الامکان اسلاف سے ہم اہنگ رکھتے ہیں(پروفیسر ڈاکٹر فاروق عزیز ) غلامی کے عنوان میں یہی نظر آتا ہے حالانکہ اس سے پہلے غلامی کے موزوں پر مباحث ہو چکے تھے اور سر سید نے اس بات کا رد کیا کہ غلامی وغیرہ کا اسلام میں کوئی مقام نہیں ہے .مولانا نے معاشی فلسفے کے ان پہلوؤں پر زیادہ بحث کی ہے . جو الہیات اور اخلاقیات سے متاثر ہوتا ہے. اسلام کے معاشی پہلو پر گفتگو کرتے وقت وہ فرض کر لیتے ہیں کہ وہ ایک مثالی اسلامی معاشرہ میں ان تعلیمات کی تفہیم کر رہے ہیں جو ابتدائی اسلامی عہد کی منہاج پر قائم ہے لیکن محض تمدنی اور تکنیکی لحاظ سے آگے ہے . اسی وجہ سے انہوں نے عصر حاضر کے بہت سارے مسائل کو یہ کہہ کر نظر انداز کر دیا ہے کہ ایک Ideal معاشرے میں ان کا وجود نہیں ہو گا.-
     سید مودودی کے نزدیک اسلامی معاشی نظام میں یہ خصوصیات ہوتی ہیں.
    ١. انسانی آزادی--٢. اخلاقی و مادی ہم آہنگی --٣ عدل -٤- تقسیم دولت میں مساوات .... مولانا ایک آزاد معیشت کے حامی ہیں جو نجی ملکیت اور منا فع کے محرک کے تحت کام کرتی ہے. اور اس کے ساتھ ساتھ اخلاقی اقدار کی موثر گرفت میں بھی ہے. --ان کے نزدیک زمین لا محدود حد تک نجی ملکیت میں ممکن ہے. سرمائےاور محنت کی کشمکش کا حل اعلی اخلاقی اصول اور ان پر عمل درآمد ہے. ڈاکٹر فاروق عزیز اس میں مزید اضافہ کرتے ہیں کہ. انہوں نے ربا-سود- کے حق میں دی جانے والے دلائل کی بہت موثر ،ٹھوس اور علمی انداز میں تردید کی ہے تاہم ان کے نزدیک امتناع ربا کی بنیادی وجوہ اخلاقی ہیں اگرچہ اس حوالے سے انہوں نے کچھ عمومی نوعیت کے معاشی دلائل بھی دیئے ہیں تا ہم ان دلائل کے کوئی ٹھوس ثبوت انہوں نے نہیں دیئے. زکات کی شرح اور مدت زکات دونوں ان کے نزدیک غیر متبدل ہیں.--مروجہ اسلامی معاشی تصورات قرانی تناظر میں ----از ڈاکٹر فاروق عزیز --ص-١٢،١٣.

    Wednesday, 2 May 2012

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    Thursday, 23 February 2012

    RECOURSE FIQH TO ISLAMIC SHARI'AH A DISCUSSION WITH PRE ISLAMIC REFERENCES.اسلامی فقہی مذاہب کا منبع ایک ہے - شریعت اسلامی -جس کی بنیاد

    قرآن و سنت پر ہے. اختلاف راۓ کی صورت میں قرآن و سنت کی طرف رجوع کرنے کا حکم ہے.بعض اختلافی آرا و ں کو ر حمت اور  وسعت قرار دیا گیا  ہے- عبدا لو ہا ب شعرانی نے سفیان ثو ری سے نقل کیا ہے کہ وہ کہا کرتے تھے کہ یوں نا  کہا کرو کی اس مسلے میں علما نے اختلا ف کیا ہے . اس کی بجاتےیوں کہا کرو کے اس مسلے میں علما نے یہ وسعت و گنجائش پیدا کی ہے .(اجتماعی اجتہاد )
    The Holly Koran was revealed upon the Last and Final Holly Prophet(Peace be upon him). The Koran and Sun' nah of the Holly Prophet are basic sources of the Islamic "Shari'ah" or Law . The concept of law is explained in a beautifully subtle parable in the Koran" The similitude of a good word is like a good tree whose root is firm and whose branches reach into heaven(14:24) Two significant words have been used in this verse i.e the root and the branches. Our jurists consider the principles of jurisprudence as the root and the laws as branches(furu). The word usul (principles) literally means roots. It is on the basis of principles and concepts that laws of conduct are made. Jurisprudence, being a science, is applicable not only to Islamic law but to any law in the world for the principles of jurisprudence have universal application.

    The commands of God and the orders of the Prophet (peace be upon him)i.e the Koran and the Sunnah, were not compiled overnight. It has taken a long time. The Holly Prophet, his Companions had worked hard, the details of which can be seen in the unparalleled history of Islam. During Umar's caliphete an event of considerable legal significance took place. He appointed a learned Companion, Abd Allah Mas'ud, as a teacher to Kufah. He used to teach in Kufah. It is obvious that his lectures abounded in references to law and jurisprudence. Abd Allah ibn Masud kept teaching law until his death.After Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud his best pupil Alqamah al-Nakha'i was apointed the Head in the principal mosque of Kufah. After his death an other Yemeni, a resident of Kufah and a student of Alqamah called Ibrahim al-Nakha'i succeeded him. Kufah acquired a reputation for excellent teaching in jurisprudence. After the death of Ibrahim al -Nakha'i his pupil Hammad ibn Sulayman, a non-Arab,succeeded him. He too was an expert in law and taught jurisprudence. At his death, yet an other student of his who also was a non-Arab- Abu Hanifah--succeeded him. He was very young at that time but was by far the most brilliant of Hammad's students. He was reluctant to take over but his own class-fellows beseeched him to continue their teacher's task.(The Emergence of Islam-IRI-IIUI)

    IN HIS  AGE VIEWS REGARDING din AND SHARI'AH  AND FIQH: According to Abu Hanifa, if the ascription of K. al-Alim wa'l-Muta.allim to him is correct, distinguished din from shari,ah on the grounds that din was never changed,whereas shari'ah continued to change through history. By din he meant the basic tents of the fath like belief in the unity of God, in the prophets, in the life after death, etc- while by shari'ah he meant the performatory duties. He does not recognize any difference between the din of various prophets, but difference between their shari,ah and forbade them to follow the shari'ah of earlier Prophets.The term din came to be used in a restricted sense, i.e tenets of Islam,in Abu Hanifais time. Hence, the term Usul al Din was used for Kalam in later age
    (Abu Hanifah,kitab al-Alim wa'l-Muta'allim-The early Development of Islamic jurisprudence-IRI)

    As stated above,the jurists among the Companions were, Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud,one of whose pupils in the fourth generation was Abu Hanifa(d-150 A.H) The other Companion was Abd Allah ibn Umar whose pupil's pupil was Malik, the founder of the Maliki school of jurisprudence. The third Companion was Abd Allah ibn Abbas some of whose legal opinions were adopted by the Khawarij. The fourth Companion was Ali ibn Abi Talib. His jurisprudence has reached us through Zayd ibn Ali and the Ithna Ashari and Fatimi  imams. Later follower the pupils of pupils e.g al Shafi,who is the pupil of Muhammad ibn al Hasan, who is the pupil of Abu Hanifa and of Malik. Among the students  there was Da'ud al Zahiri's school. In brief, there is no fundamental difference between Muslims of different theological persuasions as far as matters of law are concerned. They have been learning from each other and their legal opinions have a great degree of resemblance.( Main Source- The emergence of Islam-by Muhammad Hameedullah-IRI-IIUI Pakistan)

    THE CONCEPT AND MEANING OF TERM FIQH IN PRE-ISLAMIC AGE.


    FAQIH AL ARAB.Harith b.Kaladah.

    In the pre-Islamic days al-Harith b.Kaladah( b-in the middle of 6th century ca) was Faqih al-Arab. According to, ibn abi Usaybi'ah(d-669 A.H)--in his book Uyun al-Anba'Tabaqat al-Atibba-and Baloogh al Arab by Alausi- he was resident of Ta'if.He visited many countries. He was tabib (Doctor- Chief Physician) .He had the knowledge to operate musical instruments for which he become trained from Yaman and Persia. He was alive in the days of Hadrat Muhammad (peace be upon him),Abu Bakar(573-634), Umar(586-590-644),  Uthman ,Ali and Amir Mauwiya(R.A.T.A). He was a author of  book(Wikipedia).When he met with Anau Sherwin (Kasra). In a meeting with Kasra-- against a question of  Kasra,the Ruler of Persia at that time, he told that he is Bedvi of Arabia and is a doctor there. The Kasra, asked him that” The Arabian, due to their bad habits of ignorance, weak, raw reason and wisdom and imbalanced diet, did not know the importance of a doctor, as such, the presence of a doctor among them is naught. Al-Harith replied-If the Arabians are attributed with these bad habits and deficiencies than they in a very need of a doctor and reformer for good teachings. Hence his presence among them is very important.                                                                                                            After some other discussion, the Kasara said his friends” that I had found him solid” The Ruler of the Persia presented him so many valuables and issued order for his History Writer to get saved the dialogues which have been made between the both. الوسی لکھتا ہے -اردو ترجمہ -


    انو شیروان نے الحرث سے پوچھا تیرا پیشہ کیا ہے --اس نے کہا --طب--اس نے کہا کیا تو بدوی ہے؟ اس نے کہا : ہاں خالص بدوی اور ان میں  سے افضل گھرانے  کا ہوں --اس نے کہا -عرب اپنی جہا لت،ضعف، عقل اور بری غذاؤں  کی موجودگی  میں طبیب  کو کیا کریں گے ؟ اس نے جواب دیا --اے بادشاہ --جب عربوں کی یہ صفات ٹھہریں  تو انھیں  اس شخص  کی زیادہ ضرورت ھو گی جو ان کی اصلاح  کرے ، انکی کجی کو سیدھا کرے ، ان کیے بدنوں کی ( درستی کی) تدبیر کرے  اور ان کیے جنسی میلان کو اعتدال میں رکھے ، اس لیےکہ عقلمند  تو بذات خود ان امور سے واقف ھوتا ہے.....
    اگلی گفتگو جاری رہی اور اس کیے بعد کسریٰ نے کہا --میں نے اس شخص کو ٹھوس پایا....حق یہ ہے کہ عقلمند شخس وہی ھوتا ہے جسے تجربوں نے پختہ کار بنا دیا هو ...(بلوغ العرب  جلد -٤-اردو ترجمہ دکتور پیر  محمّد حسن )


    Hitti writes,In the art of healing he was succeeded, as was customary, by his son al --Nadr, whose mother was the Prophet's(pbuh) maternal aunt.
    According to the statement of Blogh al Arab, al Nadr was killed in the aftermath of Badr battle(1 A.H). He was enemy of Islam.Commenting upon the events of this War the Quran said" O, Prophet' Exhort the believers to fight. If there be of you twenty steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a hundred steadfast they shall overcome a thousands of those who disbelieve,because they( the disbelievers) are a folk without intelligence.
    Here the Qur'an said( قوم لا يفقهون (8:65

    The term Fiqh
    The original meaning of fiqh is the understanding and knoledge of some thing. In this sense,fiqh and fahm re synonyms. An Arabic idiom goes: فلان لا يفقه و لا ينقه (' So-and-so neither understands nor comprehends"). The word fiqh was originally use by the Arabs for a camel expert in covering; he who distingishe the she-camels that are lusting from those that are pregnent. Accordingly, the expresion  فحل فقيه was current among them.( Lisan al arab by ibn Manzoor) From this expression, it is believed, the meaning of deep knowledge and understanding of anything has been derived. Hence, Fiqh al-Lughah (understnding of the science of language) is the title of a work produced by al-Tha,alibi (d-429 A.H). This work has nothing to do with law, instead; it deals with the rules and regulations the mastery of which enables a person to acquire command over the Arabic Language. As we have already discussed  that, in pre-Islamic days the term Fiqh al'Arab was an appellation given to al-Harith b Kaladh was also called Tabib al-Arab, this latter expression being synonymous with the former term.(Arabic -English Lexicon -The early development of Islamic 
    Jurisprudence-by Ahmad Hasan-IRI-IIUI Islamabad)


    In the early period we find a number of terms like fiqh, ilm,iman, tawhid, tadhkir and hikmat that were used in broad sense, but later their original meanings changed and became more narrow and specific.In more than one place the Quran has used the word fiqh in its general sense of "understanding". The Qur'anic expression -ليتفقهوا في الدين " that they may gain understanding in religion" shows that in the Prophet's time the term fiqh was not applied in the legal sense alone but carried a wider meaning covering all aspects of Islam--namely- theological, political, economic and legal.


    The Companions of the Holly Prophet who gave legal judgement and were noted for exercising intelligence in their decisions were known as fuqaha. Alongside of the term fiqh, the term shara'i( in the plural) was also current among the early Muslims. Reports indicate that the newly converted Muslims who had come to depute someone to their locality to instruct them in the "shara'i" of Islam. As for the term shari'ah , it was hardly used in the early days of Islam. It was introduced to carry the specific meaning i.e the Law of Islam, at a later date. Literally, the word shari,ah means a "course to the watering place" and a "resort of drinkers". The Koran uses the words shir'ah and shari'ah in the meaning of din(religion), in the sense that it is the way ordained by God for man (Qur,an 5:51; 45:17). The term shara'i(pl.of shari'ah) was used in the Prophet's time for the essentials of Islam. The bedouins who requested the Prophet to depute someone to their tribe to teach them the shara'i of Islam,obviously meant the essentials of religion. They wanted to be acquainted with the fundamentals and obligatory duties of Islam. This presumption is supported by the tradition which states that the Prophet,when once asked about the shara'i of Islam, mentioned prayer,zakah, fasting of Ramadn and Hajj pilgrimage. It shows that the term shara'i meant fara'id(obligatory duties) It is also to be noted that Kalam and Fiqh were not separated till the time of al-Mamun(d218 A.H. It appears that fiqh embraced the theological problems as well as the legal issue till the second century of the Hijra, as it is concluded from a book attributed to Abu Hanif(d 150 A.H),against the beliefs of Ahl al Qadar deals with the basic tenets of Islam like faith, unity of God, His attributes, the life hereafter, Prophet-hood etc.-Source-as above-

     As we have discussed  above that . The term din came to be used in a restricted sense, i.e tenets of Islam,in Abu Hanifais time. Hence, the term Usul al Din was used for Kalam in later age. Al shafi'i uses the term shari'ah in the sense of institution. Today the term shari,ah covers all aspects of Islam. It combines Fiqh and Kalam both.(source- a.a)


    Although they had different opinions among the jurists,the Islamic scholars/Fuqha had worked to find the exact will of the Lawgiver for the Islah and Falah (guidence and welfare) of the mankind.They left for us a great quantity of Islamic literature on Islamic Jurisprudence for guidance and precedents. These different opinions had given a open field for research. Now the scholars of this modern age are taking the advantage of this. It is imperative for the Researcher to know about the different opinions among all the Islamic schools of jurisprudence without any prejudice to reach up to the real and correct conclusion, following the Objective of the Shari'ah". All these have ONE and the same SOURCE Islamic SHARI'AH.

    The Federal Shariat Court Islamabad is not restricted to follow a specific school of jurisprudence. The Honorable court has included in his list of Advisers  to assist the court, relating to all school of Islamic prudence. The path and practice of the Council of Islamic Ideology Pakistan, is also approximately the same. 

      وفاقی شرعی عدالت  کسی خاص مسلک کی پابند نہیں ہے،لیکن اپنے فیصلوں میں عدالت نے ہر مسلک کی رائے اور دلائل کو اہمیت دی ہے .اصول فقہ سے بھی استفادہ کیا جاتا ہے . عدالت نے اپنے متعدد فیصلوں میں اس بات کی تصریح کی ہے کہ قانون  کیے لیے بنیادی ذریعے قرآن اور سنت ہیں . اگر کسی مسلے کے بارے  میں قرآن کریم کا حکم موجود هو اور اپنے معنی میں با لکل واضح اور صریح هو تو اس پر عمل کیا جاتے گا اور اسے قانونی شکل دی جاتے گی . اگر قرآن کریم کا کوئی حکم واضح اور صریح نا هو ،احادیث مبارکہ میں اس وضاحت کی گی هو تو حدیث میں ذکر کردہ وضاحت کی روشنی مے قرآن کریم کی تصریح کی جاتے گی -(محمد مطيع الرحمن --اجتماعي اجتهاد-) 

    سعودي عرب كي عد التين قرآن و سنت كي بعد فقہ حنبلی سے استفادہ حاصل کرتی ہیں - مذہب حنبلی پر عمل درآمد کیے دوران مے اگر کسی معاملہ میں قاضی محسوس کرے کی اس میں حنبلی مذہب کیے مطابق عمل کرنے میں زیادہ دشواری پی جاتی ہے  یا وہ مصلحت عا مہ کے مطابق نہیں ہے،تو وہ یے دیکھے گا کہ اس مسلے مین  دوسرے مذاہب کا کیا حکم ہے . پھر جس مذھب کا حکم بھی مصلحت کیے قریب هو گا اس کیے مطابق فیصلہ کیا جاتے گا .(سعودی عرب کی عدالتی نظام ). 
    امام احمد کے مسلک کیے مطابق مسائل کا حکم معلوم کرنے کی لیے عدالتیں  مندرجہ ذیل کتابوں سے راجوع کریں گی.
    (١ )  شرح المنتہی (٢)شرح الاقتناع...اور جو مسلہ ان دونوں کتابوں میں یکساں طور پر ذکر ھوا هو ،یا صرف ایک کتاب میں موجود هو فیصلہ اس کی مطابق کیا جاتے گا -اور جس دونوں کتابوں میں دو دو الگ الگ حکم موجود ہوں ، تو پھر ایسی صورت میں " شرح المنتہی " میں بیان کردہ حکم اختیار کیا جاۓ گا .

    Now the scholars of Islam re- coursing to the wider sense of Islamic Shari,ah. A contemporary author defines Shari'ah and distinguishes it from Fiqh in the following words.

    "Shari,at" is the wider circle, it embraces in its orbit all human actions, fiqh is the narrow one, and deals with what are commonly understood as legal acts. Shari'at reminds us always of revelation, that 'ilm(knowledge) which we could never have possessed but for the Koran or Hadith; in fiqh, the power of reasoning is stressed, and deductions based upon 'ilm are continuously cited with approval. The path of Shari,at is laid down by God and His Prophet; the edifice of fiqh is erected by human endeavor. In the fiqh, an action is either legal or illegal, yasjuzu wa ma la yajuzu, permissible. In the Shari'at there are various grades of approval or disapproval. Fiqh is the term used for the law as a science; and Shari,at, for the law as the divinely ordained path of rectitude.(Fayzee, Asaf A.A Outlines of Muhammadan Law, London-&-Ahmed Hasan).
    In above-mentoned para the writer tells us that the Fiqh is a branch of Islamic Shari'ah or Law ,it may be dealt with,keeping in view his proper status and limitations in the Islamic Shari'ah.

    ALLAH SAYS:"But,nay, by the Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make thee judge of what in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of that which thou decidest, and submit with full submission.(Al-Koran 4:65)
    My other blog-http://---http://talibhaq-readgood.blogspot.com--.

    Tuesday, 14 February 2012

    PROHIBTION OF RIBA/USURY IN KORAN & SUNNAH(Ihkam)

    It is said that the interest-based economy is the very backbone of the modern and capitalist economy. Dr.Waqar Masood Khan writes" On the one hand is this sordid reality of the present-day life and on the other is the vehement denunciation of riba in the Qur'an and in the tradition of the Prophet (Peace be upon him). The intensely vitriolic tenor of the Qur,anic castigation of riba cannot be lost on anyone who has gone through the Qur'an". IN THE HOLLY QUR'AN IT IS FOUND:-

    The verses of the Qur'an, on the subject.

    The study of verses about Riba in the Qur’an (revealed) in chorological order. There are four different sets of verses about Riba in Qur’an in the order of Occurrence from which an objective study is being made here under;-
    1.     First, in Surah Al Rum (30; 39) which was revealed in Makah, The term of Riba has been used in the following manners;-                                                                                 That which ye give in usury(Riba) in order that it may increase on(other) people’s property hath no increase with Allah; but that which ye give in charity, seeking Allah’s countenance, hath increase manifold.
    2.     The second place is the Surah Al Nisa (4.161) where in the Riba is used in the context of sinful acts of Jews with the following words.
    And of their taking usury (Riba) when they were forbidden it,
    3.     The verses (3; 130) of Surah Al Imran has the third number wherein the prohibition of Riba is laid down in the under noted wordings;   O ye who believe! Devour not usury (Riba) doubling and quadrupling (the sum lent). Observe your duty to Allah, that ye may be successful.
    4. The fourth set of verses was revealed as follows (Surah Al Baqarah 275; 281)
    275. those who swallow usury (Riba) cannot rise up save as he ariseth whom the devil hath prostrated by (his) touch. That is because they say: Trade is just like usury (Riba); whereas Allah permitteth trading and forbidden usury (Riba). He unto whom an admonition from his Lord Cometh, and (he) refraineth (in obedience thereto), he shall keep (the profits of) that which is past, and his affair (henceforth) is with Allah. As for him who returneth (to usury [Riba]) _ such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein.
    276. Allah hath blighted usury (Riba) and made almsgiving fruitful. Allah loveth not the impious and guilty.
    277. Lo! Those who believe and do good works and establish worship and pay the Poor-due, their reward is with their Lord and there shall no fear come upon them Neither shall they grieve.
    278. O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah, and give up what remaineth (due to you) from usury (Riba), if ye are (in truth) believers.
    279. And if ye do not, then be warned of war (against you) from Allah and His messenger. And if ye repent, then ye have your principal (without interest). Wrong not, and ye shall not be wronged.
    280. And if the debtor is in straitened circumstances, then (let there be) postponement to (the time of) ease; and that ye remit the debt as almsgiving would be better for your if ye did but know.281. And guard yourselves against a day in which ye will be brought back to Allah. Then every soul will be paid in full that which it hath earned, and they will not be wronged (ref to Holy Qur’an by MARMADUKE PICKTHALL)

      Inferences drawn form there verses:

    1.     There is a sharp contrast between charity and usury. Usury creates conflict, hatred, jealousy and economic warfare among individuals whereas charity promotes harmony, cooperation and collaboration in the society.
    2.     There is distinct difference between legitimate trade and usury. Not every surplus in transaction is forbidden. The surplus, which is a result of spelling and purchasing, is legitimate and lawful. The surplus which one earns without exertion and bearing risk and liability is prohibited.
    3.     The believers have been asked to give to the remaining amount of Riba` and permitted to receive their principal amounts. This gives Quranic definition of Riba`, that is, any addition to the capital in a transaction of loan is Riba`.
    4.     No distinction has been made between an addition in the capital sum of the loan based on simple interest and an addition based on compound interest.
    5.     No distinction has been made between a loan contracted for the purpose of consumption and that contracted for production.
    6.     The creditors have right to their capital sums only.
    7.     To demand excess in the capital is injustice to the debtor and to deny the creditor his principal amount is an injustice to him.
    8.     Continuing any further dealing in Riba` will amount to inviting war from Allah and His Massage.
    9.     Creditors have been asked to give time to debtors for repayment of capital, if necessary.
    10.To write off a debt altogether is an act of charity.

    Riba` in Sunnah is read as under:-


      The ahadith dealing with riba` are of two categories. First, those, which reaffirm the type of riba` mentioned in the Qur`an. The second categories are those that introduce a new form of riba`, not mentioned in the Qur`an. This latter form of riba` is known as Riba` al-fadl.
            A few of the ahadith relating to either category are reproduced below:
    The First Category of Ahadith on Riba`

    1.     The Prophet (saw) is reported to have said in his last hajj Sermon (the farewell address).”Beware, all Riba` outstanding from the Riba` prevalent during the pre-Islam era is void. You are entitled to your principal money. Neither shall you oppress nor shall you be oppressed.”¹
    2.     ).“Beware, all Riba` of pre-Islam era is annulled and the first claim of Riba` which I cancel is that of my uncle”.²
    3.     From Jabir, who said: “The Message of Allah (saws) cured the one who charges Riba`; he who gives it; the one who records it; and the two witnesses; saying that “they are all equal”. ³
    The Second Category of Ahadith          
    1.     From Abu` Sa’id al-Khudri, who said: “the Messenger of Allah  (saws) said: “Do not sell gold for gold except when it is like for like; nor misappropriate one through the other; nor sell silver for except like for like; nor misappropriate one through the other, nor sell thing that are absent for those that are present”.⁴
    2.     From’Ubadah Ibn Samit who said; “The Messenger of Allah (saws) said; Gold for gold, silver for silver, wheat for wheat, barley for barley, dates for dates, salt for salt, like for like, in equal weights, from hand for hand. If those species differ, then sell as you like as long as it is from hand to hand”.⁵ These two ahadith provide that the following three transactions are usurious transactions.
    (i)                            A transaction of money for money of the same denomination where the quantity on both sides is not equal. Either in a spot transaction or in a transaction based on deferred.
    (ii)                          A barer transaction between two weighable or measurable commodities of the same kind. Where the quantity on both sides is not equal or where delivery from any one side is deferred.⁶
    (iii)                        A barter transaction between two different weighable or measurable commodities when delivery from one side is deferred.

      Kinds of Riba`

    There are two main kinds of Riba`:  Riba` al duyun and Riba` al-buyu’ (Riba` of debt transactions and Riba` of sale transactions) Riba` al-buyu’ is further divided into two kinds, i.e., Riba` al fudl and Riba` al nasa`.
    I)Riba` al fudl(Riba` by way of excess)
    It is the excess revealed through a Shari’ah criterion stipulated in one of the two counter-values, in transaction of exchange.⁷ it can also be defined as an unequal exchange of wheat with wheat. The Shari’ah criterion in the above definition refers to weight or measure of capacity or count. Thus, if two persons were exchanging wheat with each other, the quantity must be equal on both sides: if there is excess on one side, it would amount to Riba` al fudl (Riba` by way of excess). Riba` al fudl takes place in a homogenous exchange with increase from one side in terms of weight or measurement. In the above example if 15 Kg wheat is exchange for 6 Kg wheat, that would amount riba al-fadl.

    II)Riba` al-Nase’(Riba of delay):

    It is Riba` by way of deferment of completion of an exchange. Riba` al-nasa`       ( Riba` by way of deferment) take place when articles of the same genera or different genera, whether measured or weighed, are exchanged with deferment on one side, whether or not there is releases in favor of either side. Thus, if 5 Kg gold is exchanged for 5 Kg gold with a delay of one year, it will amount to Riba al-nasa` because it has arisen from a period of delay.
    References
    ¹Muslim, Sahih, Kitab` al-Hajj.
    ² Muslim, Sahih, Kitab` al-Hajj.
    ³ Bukhari, Sahih, Kitab` al-Buyu’ Muslim, Sahih, Chapter on Riba`
    ⁴ Muhammad ibn Islam’il San’ani, Subul al-Salam, Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1938, vol. 3,p.37
    ⁵ Muslim Sahih, Kitab` al-Musaqat, Bab al-Sarf. Hadith no 1587, vol,3, p. 1211.,vol. 3, p. 37.
    ⁶ Order of Supreme court’s Appellate Bench on Riba`. The News, December 24,1999
    ⁷ Kasani, Bada al-Sana’I, vol. 5, p, 183 (Abstracted from Islamic Law of Contracts and Business Transactions P.124:128 Shariah Academy International Islamic University Islamabad).  

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    RIBA FREE LENDING AND ECONOMY..

    The Holly Prophet(Peace be upon him)said"A time will come over people when not a single person will remain who does not devour riba,and if there be any who refrains from it,still its vapor will overtake him.Interest has been characterized as the very backbone of modern,capitalist economy;the linchpin of virtually all economic institutions and activities of our time. The web of interest encompasses banking and finance,business and commerce,industry and agriculture.Hence the Islamic economy is imperative the he mankind from it.

    Always the people deem that the Riba/Usury is prohibited in Islam only,but the(Ihkam) injunctions of the Koran and Sun'nah are for all the mankind. The transactions on the basis of Riba/Usury/interest were also prohibited in the Old Testaments. Mufi Muhammad Taqi Usmani has very kindly worked for us and he writes as under:-
    Riba in the Bible:
    This prohibition is still available in the old testament of the bible. The following excerpts may be quoted with advantage:
     “Thou shalt not lend upon usury (Riba), to thy brother; usury (Riba) of money, usury (Riba) of victuals, usury (Riba) of anything that is lent upon usury (Riba).”[Deuteronomy 23:19]
    “Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? Who shall dwell in thy holy hill? He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness and speaketh the truth in his heart. He that putteth not out of his money to usury (Riba), nor taketh reward against the innocent.”[Psalms 15:1, 2, 5]
    “He that by usury (Riba) and unjust gain increaseth his substance, he shall gather it for him that will pity the poor”. [proverbs 28:8]
    “Then I consulted with myself, and I rebuked the nobles, and rules and said unto them, ye exact usury (Riba), every one of his brother. And I set a great assembly against them.”[Nehemiah 5:7]
    “He that hath not given forth upon usury(Riba), neither hath taken any increase, that hath withdraw his hand from iniquity, hath executed true judgment between man and man, Hath walked in my statues, and hath kept my judgments, to deal truly; he is just,.
    He shall surely live, said the Lord GOD.[Ezekiel 18:8,9]
    In thee have they taken gifts to shed blood; thou hast taken usury (Riba) and increase, and though hast greedily gained of the neighbors by extortion, and hast forgotten me, said the Lord God.[Ezekiel 22:`12].{Ref:  The Historic Judgment On Interest Page 31:32}


    The Holly Prophet Hadarat Muhammad(Peace be upon him)said in the last Sermon delivered on the ninth day of Dhul Hijjah,1o A.H.
    "Allah has forbidden you to take usury(Riba, interest),therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital,however,is yours to keep.You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to"Abbas ibn' Abdl al Mutalib shall henceforth be waived.Translation rendered by Jamshed Ahmed Hamid in a book"Human Rights-IRI-IIUI


    SEE PLEASE NEXT POST ALSO.


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    Sunday, 5 February 2012

    PAKISTAN-EXPANSION OF BANKING SECTOR & EAST INDIA COMPANY.

    In his article,written in2008,"Performance of Banking Sector in Pakistan,Dr Shahid Hassan Siddiqui writes:-
    During last six years or so,SBP(State Bank Of Pakistan)has particularly adopted a policy of encouraging auction of Pakistani banks to foreigners.This policy is fraught with risks as banks are very powerful institutions.It is therefore,in national interest that the share of foreign banks' deposits in the total deposits is kept at a low level.In any case,the bulk of income of banks operating in Pakistan is in local currency but the profit of banks owned by foreigners is to be remitted in foreign currency.This, along with other factors,will have serious strain on current account deficit and on foreign exchange reserves as also on Rupee-Dollar parity in coming years. We may therefore,well see depreciation in the value of local currency.The share of foreign banks' deposits in the total deposits of the banking sector in 1992 was only 14 percent but the share of foreign stake has now increased to over 50 percent.
    The prevailing situation reminds us of the era of East India Company.We are witnessing the re-colonization of the state of Pakistan due to the policies of"Viceroy and financial Viceroys.It appears that SBP is working like minor regional office of the US Federal Reserve System. Dr Hassan-uz-Zaman,while observing that abundance of multi-national corporations is regarded as stratagem to pave the way for economic imperialism by the industrialized nations,says:-
    "Dr Shahid Hasan Sadiqui has warned the government of Pakistan to be careful in transferring the privatized industrial and financial institutions to foreign investors because they might emerge as a new East India Company"
    It was in 1997 that we had cautioned the government by saying".....it would not be prudent to sell the public sector banks to foreigners.If these banks are sold to foreigners,banks controlled by foreigners,including existing foreign banks,will emerge as most powerful tycoon.
    With reference to Rupee-Dollar parity, it is interesting to see that between 2001-2007 the exchange rate remained almost the same but with start of rise in oil prices and lawyers movement in Pakistan,the rupee totally collapsed,said the Overseas Pakistani Friends(www.opfblog.com). However ,a US dollar was equal to 66.62 on 30 May 2008(Buying OD/T.CHQ) and on 6th January it is stood at 89.87 with the increase of Rupees.23.22.How much effected the above cause,the Pak Rupee,the figures can be seen.Entire position can be known from this  single aspect.
    But now we have to state here that, in17th  century a Sufi poet,Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, has warned the people of Indian Sub-continent for bad effects of the East India Company,as we have discussed in our three old posts of this blog,why we can not judge the factual position?
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    Saturday, 4 February 2012

    SHAH ABDUL LATIF BHITTAI--EAST INDIA COMPANY(3)

    This post relates to old posts on the subject.
    Professor Akram Ansari has rendered  the under noted stanza of Sur Sarirag(III,11) into English verse.
    My bark in mid-stream may sink,my sail--------------------What was thought so perfect now doth fail,
    The guides are not to be seen in rightful place-----The prowling pirates (Philangi) up and down do space,
    My Lord my modest craft protect:----------------------When proud vessels have been cruelly wrecked.  Professor Ansari translated the word Philangi as "Pirate".F.Q.Fatimi tells, us that there is a word frang/philage in the poetry of Shah"I doubt if Professor Ansari's"pirate" does justice to Shah's Philangi Now"pirate" is much to sophisticated a term for Sindhi pejorative (Choor). It is what Sorley said of Shah's imaginative use of the Sindhi language that makes his poetry sometimes untranslatable.It can only be paraphrased. Thus the philamg/frangi (Frank) is trated as"Pirate".
    There was apparently no philangi on the sacred soil of Sindh,but were two parties Dutch and  British.The Mughal ruler Shah Jahan's short-sighted-ness had allowed the East India Company to establish a factory at Thatta in 1635 but they had to close it in 1662, that is twenty-seven years before the Shah's birth.The British company did not relish the tough competition offered by the Dutch; the Mughal law of escheat which brought about a modicum of economic balance was abhorred by them;and,finally, the War of Succession(1659) with its resultant insecurity proved the proverbial last straw.
    There was very brisk international maritime trade at the neighboring Cambay,the Khambayat of the local toponymy which has been depicted in great and loving detail by the Shah in Sur Srirag...
    Advani  writes' Sind merchants had specialized in the trade or precious stones,superfine fabrics and other costly commodities.They sailed in winter by sea and returned in spring by river.Their wives wept and pined in their separation and daily offered perfumed rice to the sea and floated  on the river and prayed pathetically for their safe return. They used to hug the helms of ships before they lifted their anchors and parted with their lords with sobs and tears.
    According to Fatimi"It is the bitter cry of anguish against the economic inroads of the philangi (British company). It is unmistakably shows that the above-quoted stanza is related to that maritime trade.
    Fatimi writes:"I am sure that in this stanza ,the prophetic warning against the consequences of the most incompetent Moghul ruler Farrukh Siyar's(r.1712-1719) firman of 1717 which,among other concessions,made the company'trade customs-free throughout the imperial territories in return for an annual tribute of the paltry sum of Rupees three thousand To quote Muhammad Iqbal" They sold a nation and how cheaply they sold it.The comments in"The Cambridge Economic History of India" are
    "The edict of Emperor Farrukhsiyar was to become the cornerstone of English commercial and political policy in India,and by making the Company partly independent of the local re-distributive enterprise,it opened the way to possible corruption and abuse of the system. The indigenous merchants,subject to the payment of numerous tolls and customs dues,were placed in a position of disadvantage and strove to overcome it by purchasing duty-free trading passes from the English Company
    The English achieved a near monopoly of India's maritime trade and,also,enlisted a band of Indian collaborators. The local Cambay trade which the Portuguese had found so formidable and flourishing in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was completely destroyed. Following that system there grew up a compradore exploiting commercial class that was lazy and lascivious and had sold its soul to the colonialist interest of the English Company.
    It was a insight of a great Sufi poet that he told ,what lay for us next,in his poetry. Now we have to see up to what extent we are following such a way of defeats.(See coming post).


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    Saturday, 28 January 2012

    Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai-East India Company(2)


    This is in continuation of our article Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai. Before discussion the poetry of Shah and East India Company,it is necessary to write some about the colonization of this continent and other Islamic world to understand the factual position and situation.A Malaysian scholar, Mr. Abdullah al-Ahsan writes:-
    SOME COLONIAL ACTIVITIES IN MUSLIM COUNTRIES.
     European colonization of the Muslim world began following the expulsion of the Muslims from Spain and with the Portuguese capture of Goa (1510) on the Indian coast and Malacca (1511) in the Malay Peninsula along with aggressive Portuguese activities in the North and East African coasts. The Portuguese believed that in order to gain commercial supremacy over the Indian Ocean, it was necessary to occupy and control certain strategic point in the region. They were reported to have been making at least 500% profit with the imported goods bought from Asian markets. This attracted other European countries to the region. By the beginning of the seventeenth century the European trading companies became more organized: the Dutch, the French and the British formed East India companies as joint stock enterprises along with many other similar companies. These companies were all supported by their government who competed against each other for gaining commercial privileges from local rulers in Asia and Africa. 
     Muslim rulers do not seem to have been concerned about the interference of European countries in the affairs of Muslim countries However, in the 1680s when the British East India company attempted to capture Bombay (now called Mumbai), a major trading centre on the coast of India, the powerful Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (r. 1657-1707)? cancelled all the concessions granted to the British. Therefore, as a historian of the British India Company put it:
     . . . “The Company was forced to go on bended knee to Aurangzeb and ask his indulgence with respect to continuing Company trade with India. Fortunately, as far as the Company’s future was concerned, Aurangzeb took the view that the English were nothing more than an irritant in the greater imperial scheme of things . . . the Company had to issue abject apologies . . . unfortunate incidents were forgotten and trade relations returned to normal”. 
    There were many reasons for the East India Company to apologize to the Indian emperor: the Indian trade had already become the backbone of the British economy. In fact, all European countries were making huge profits by selling eastern goods in European markets. In the seventeenth century the British East India Company was making at least two hundred percent profit and made substantial amounts of loans to the British government.  As a result of colonization of the Muslim countries all of these had been put under the influence of un-Islamic Laws/ rules. All the fields of Islamic society had been affected adversely. Abdullah al-Ahsan writes:-
    The French in Algeria replaced the Muslim land owning people by settlers from French itself. The change of elite under the French colonial system occurred through the introduction of a new education system. The process of a new education system also, however, began under the British rule in India.
    The western rulers had launched a campaign to Christianize the population of colonization especially the Muslims.(Source-Islamic Studies,37:1-Spring 1998-pp29-55-IRI Islamabad)
    The cultural activities had been affected as under:-
    The Orient- list attack on Islam was subsequently supported by activities in the field of culture. The gatemen and waiters in colonial offices, messes, and clubs were made to wear the dress of the Muslim aristocracy. High ranking titles of Muslim armies such as subadar or jamadar were given to junior and non-commissioned officers or even to sweepers or cleaners in colonial armies. Books history and literature highlighted Muslim weaknesses. Muslim contributions and achievements to human progress tended to be ignored and Muslim heroes were often portrayed as villains. Missionary and government schools were established to indoctrinate the students according to colonial needs. Graduates of traditional Muslim institutions, on the other hand, were totally neglected. This dealt a death blow to the traditional Muslim educational system. For the Muslim educational system, as mentioned earlier, was patronized either by the ruler or by private individuals. The economic ruin of the community now brought ruin in the fields of education and culture.
    Economic Impact of Colonization. The said impact was found in colonize regions as under:-
    Economic Impact of Colonization.                                                                                                                                          The early impact of colonialism on Afro-Asian economy was devastating in the true sense of the word. We have indicated earlier about the way wealth was transferred to Europe from Asia and Africa. The colonialists not only resorted to what might quiet legitimately be called the looting of the available wealth, but by the end of their rule the Asian and African countries were made completely dependent on European economies. It must be pointed out here that no Afro-Asian country was under foreign debt before the colonial era. Romesh Dutt, a civil servant of the British Indian government, says:
    . . . The sources of national wealth in India have been narrowed under British rule. India in the eighteen century was a great manufacturing as well as a great agricultural country, and the products of the Indian loom supplied the markets of Asia and Europe . . . The East India Company and the British Parliament . . . discouraged Indian manufacturers in the early years of British rule in order to encourage the rising manufacturers of England.
    The Islamic Education(from 20th century)
    Shari’ah and its teaching as law were marginalized in the universities during the colonial period. The Western scholars of Islamic law predicted a gradual disappearance of the subject from the university curricula. This did not happen. On the contrary, during the last century, Islamic law has become one of the most significant and often popular subjects on the campuses in Muslim countries. The number of faculties, colleges and institutions that teach Islamic law has increased. Organizations dealing with Fatwa, training of Shari’ah judges and research on Islamic legal subjects have multiplied. The volume of publication on Islamic law is overwhelming; journals, dissertations and conferences about the Shari’ah are abounding. Islamic law is no more confined to the four walls of the courts, or to the class room of madrasahs and universities. Its application to the economy-banking, business transaction, insurance, mortgage and other financial and commercial institutions-has brought Islamic law to the open streets of the market. (Islamic Studies 44:2 Summer 2005,pp 165 onward( Islamic Research Institute, I.I.U,Islamabad-By Muhammad Khalid Masood).
    Next we will discuss the activities of the East India Company with reference. to Poetry of the Shah.
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    Friday, 27 January 2012

    SHAH ABDUL LATIF BHITTAI(1689-1752)Politics and economics views in his poetry. economy

    .
    The most celebrated and loved of SINDHI poets,Shah Abdul Latif Latif(born in 1101 A.H-1989/1690 A.D in a village of Hyderabad District-Pakistan)ranks among the select band of the world's great poets who are honoured and cherished as the national poets par excellence of the language in which they wrote or composed--S.Q Fatimi writes"Sorely seems tsuggest that like Kant and Hegel the Shah lived in his contemplative ivory tower.But that is palpably wrong. for the shah was constantly on the move and he moved among the masses,and sang of the masses, and for the masses.And for that,matter,let us not forget, even Kant and Hegel were the precursors of the revolutionary thought of Karl Marx. When Asif Ali Zardari was released in the Mashraf Government, he has  mentioned with great concern that he has been deprived from (due to imprisonment)to teach his children the poetry and thoughts/teachings of Shah Latif..This historically important statement to pay homage to this revered poet,is worth mentioning to note here.It is derived from these words delivered from Mr.Zardari now the President of the Pakistan,that the poetry, work, construction and teachings therein are very important and valuable for us.The children are now named perhaps following the tile of his"Sur Bilawal". BUT DURING THE LIFE OF THIS GREAT SAINT,IN THE PAST....


    Political Situation:



    It was time of anarchy ,the Sufi poet lauded his voice,when the Pyrrhic victories of the Aurangzeb(r-1658-1707) has gone into"nothing". The vast , well-established social and fiscal web has been broken into pieces. After the assassination of Nadir Shah Afshar the new unlike set up was being made. Fatimi and historians write"The Sind had become a chattel,. changing hands among the alien parvenus.The local elite consisted of the pirs and the mirs who had entered into an unholy alliance against the peasants,herdsmen,fishermen,traders,and labourers of the land. The local elite found, in the popular appeal of Shah's poetry, a challenge to their own authority. The ruling Kalhoro,who claimed both the temporal and spiritual overlordship,made a number of sneaking attempts at the assassination of the innocent Sayyid Sufi Poet. Other holy houses of Sind including his own Mut'allawis were not far behind in conspiring against him.

    All his life he himself fought and urged his followers to fight against hatred with love;against self-aggrandizement and lust with benevolence and grace; against violence with peace;against religious fanaticism with the Qur'anic dictum (no compulsion in religion--2:256)and(for you your religion and for me mine-109:6);against parochialism with the Sufi message of pluralism of (unity in diversity).On the positive and comprehensive side,for that throbbing and pulsating nationalism that is over arched by universal ism(Islamic Studies IRI). It is  necessity of the time that we have to follow these teachings for our survival. 

    Shah the Economist of His Time

    It is an accepted truth that the poet has the sufficient geographical knowledge. Interestingly ,Schimmel(d2003) called his Sur Sarirag(III,11)"the first geographical poem in Sindh".About his knowledge and interest ,Advani,writes"In Sur Sri Rag and Sur Samoondi,Shah refers to the commercial enterprise of Sindhi merchants, the commodities in which they dealt,the places with which they had commercial ties, the sea routs they followed in their ventures,the seasons during which they traveled and the various type of boats and vessels then utilized for commercial purposes. In several "Surs" he makes a mention of some of the important ports and also of the stations where taxes were charged. We also get from some Sure" an idea of some of the land routes and the wares exchanged between Sind and other countries" The sufi poet also tells us the hazards in these trades. It is derived from his poetry that "The perils of the Arabian Sea were no less serious than the hazards involved in commercial enterprises undertaken to far-flung harbors.he says.----The boat of the frail ones is entrusted to Thy care,,O Lord mayest Thou lead it safely to Porebandar...The Muslim scholars were aware from the risk involved in such a trade. Ibn Abidin(d1836)and his successors had witten on Sookara-Security(Insurance) .

    Not only the ocean was tempestuous in itself--the'tempests blowing over it added to its wrath and fury.It was lure of pearls that inspired Sind merchants to sail for far-off places like Aden and breast all manner of dangers with courage of the heart and faith in God.The luster of gold attracted then to Ceylon and further far-flung realms.This great poet had given his prophetic warning and foresight about the effects and dangers from the East India company(it will be discussed).

    In several"Sures" ,Shah has thrown light on the wealth of Sindh, luxurious life of its aristocratic families and munificence of its rulers. The way in which royal ladies adorned their persons and the way in which rulers lavishly lived and patronized humble men is amply illustrated in these"Sure"He says e.g---As roses,so their garments--Their ringlets were dipped in oil of Jasmine--..The ears of the Lovely One were decked with silver and gold.--The golden damsels played freely with silver.

    In Sur Kamod-,Parbhati and Sur Bilawal", we have evidence(may be in an exaggerated from)of the enormity of the munificence and patronage of Sing monarchs.The Sufi poet had used the word farangi/firangi(Frank) which epitomizes all the bitterness that the easterners felt towards their western colonizers.

    (Ref.Shah Latif by K.B.ADvani-Islamic Studies IR& others).Part-2 of it is regarding, Shah and East India Company.


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